We supposed that the concentration of enzymes directly influences reaction rates. Students should write this section at the beginning and have it contain an explanation of the study that was conducted. In this part, you describe the whole procedure you did in order to help other students do this experiment in the future.
It is allowed to use diagrams in this part. You need to write about the measurement methods and techniques, indicate all sizes, quantify things, etc. Be accurate and careful in this section! Preparing an extract of catecholase, we used a washed, skinned, and diced potato and we used a scale in order to get precisely 30 grams of potato. We also poured ml of water into a beaker.
We added water to the potato, removed the cover of a kitchen blender, and added both ingredients to a blender, we then put the cover back on and pressed the start button, noting the time. Then we pushed the button again to stop the blender. We used four layers of cheesecloth to filter the result and then we stored the obtained extract in a clean, closed container. Here you need to present the findings to your audience in a clear, orderly way. You can write this part almost at the beginning.
The facts here could appear like a story that you want to tell your readers. Organize all your facts in a logical fashion and do not interpret your results in this section. Experimental group. Absorbance nm. After you have written the results, start to write a discussion. Here you have to write about your ideas after the experiment was conducted and inform your readers about your thoughts that are based on the results of the experiment.
There should be a comparison of your results and your expected findings. Write in this section some information about whether your results supported your thesis or there were variances. Your interpretation must be original and you can write from being specific to general and do not prove or disprove your hypothesis.
Add some original ideas to your interpretation and end with a concluding statement. Proteins catalyze reactions by bringing down the activation energy of the reaction; catecholase, an enzyme discovered in potato, changes catechol to benzoquinone with the presence of oxygen. We expected that more benzoquinone would be shaped by the presence of a more noteworthy measure of catecholase. This theory was proven by the outcomes acquired. Catalysts are influenced by the environment — the level of pH present in the environment is one factor that can modify chemicals while the rate at which the compound shape item is moderated or accelerated depending on how near to the standard the environment is.
The last part of your work is to cite the sourced that you have used in order to reference them in the future. Use internal citations in this section. You can find the instructions about how to cite sources in a lab report and ask your teacher about a citation format that he or she requires; note that all references must be included at the end of your text: books, articles, lab manuals, and other sources.
After you have written your work, check it carefully to find any grammar or spelling mistakes in it. Ensure that you followed the required format and style and cited all the sources you had used. Do not forget to prepare your title page following any special requirements and use a reasonable font for your work.
Ensure margins are also according to the formatting style that your instructor requires. Include page numbers, additional information, your full name, and the headings to your sections. Lab reports are individual assignments - you may have a partner while you conduct experiments, but you always need to write the paper on your own.
Do not plagiarize other's work. You need to understand your material well and you also must understand which format and style of work you need. Need a lab report? You can get some help from our professional writers and order a paper on biology. Our prices are quite cheap and only highly qualified professionals work with us, thus, you will be satisfied with our work. If you want to order a report, just contact us and you will receive all the details from our support team.
In this class your audience should be another General Biology student. When you read what you have written, if it is too abstract then go back and write it in plain English. However it is very important to use the correct scientific terminology as learned in class as well as provide, and underline, the species names of the organisms studied.
You should never use direction quotations in a scientific report. A direct quotation is a statement exactly as it was said by another person and placed between quotation marks. Instead, you need to paraphrase ideas stated by other authors by writing them in your own words. In addition to paraphrasing the information you must cite the source of information both parenthetically and also in a References section.
This is explained below. Not citing ideas or information provided by another person is plagiarism and grounds for expulsion from this class. All relevant facts in a scientific report should be supported by citation to scientific sources such as journals or books. The journals, books and other sources of information that you cite are called the references. It is very important to choose appropriate sources of information.
Websites may not be allowed as acceptable sources of information. Ask your instructor if you are not sure if a source of information is acceptable! In the text of your report, sources are cited parenthetically, at the end of the information, by the surname s of the author s and the year of publication, all of which should be in parentheses for example: Casotti You will also write out the full citation in the References section at the end of the report.
Examples are given for many different sources of information. Remember: not citing ideas or information of another person is plagiarism and grounds for expulsion from this class. Title Every report must have a title. The title should be fairly brief and should use keywords that describe what you are studying. Usually the independent variable, dependent variable and organism being studied are included in the title.
Abstract The abstract is basically a summary of four things: 1. These four ideas should be formatted into one paragraph and the total length should be no more than words. You may or may not be asked to write an abstract. Introduction This section should proceed from the general to the specific.
It begins with general background information and guides the reader to your few final sentences in your last paragraph. First the experimenter should provide all relevant background information that is necessary for the reader to understand the experiment.
Thinking of: who, what, where, when and how may be helpful to insure all relevant information is included. The introduction informs the reader of the context in which the work was done, and why it was necessary to do the work, in other words, why the study was important. After the background information there should be a clear statement of the aim s of the experiment: what questions are you trying to answer?
This is followed by your hypotheses and predictions. The final paragraph should include a brief statement of what you did including the organism used, what you measured and how you measured it. You should have provided enough information previously so the reader understands why you have chosen the organism to use and the factor s to measure. Correct scientific terminology should be used. In addition to the common name of the organism you must provide the species name which should be underlined or italicized.
Never state or discuss your results in the Introduction. All relevant facts in this section should be supported by citation to scientific sources such as journals or books. Remember that not citing ideas or information provided by another person is plagiarism and grounds for expulsion from this class. Materials and methods This section tells the reader exactly what you did in the laboratory to arrive at the results that you obtained.
You can organize this section anyway you wish, either by dividing it into smaller sections using subtitles or keeping it in one large section. The rule of thumb is that it should provide enough information so that someone else could come into a lab and repeat your experiment. Anything quantified , such as by size, volume, mass or number should be included.
However it should be clear and concise, not repetitive. If the same procedure is carried out multiple times you can refer to the initial explanation and then include a brief explanation of how this trial differs. The materials and methods section of a scientific report is written in the past tense and passive voice. It is not written as a list of instructions but instead states in paragraph format what was done and how it was done.
Do not list materials or steps or refer to your lab manual. Basic lab procedures that are common knowledge such as taking temperature using a thermometer, recording data in a table, graphing data or using a balance to determine mass should not be included. If a computer program is used to collect or analyze data the name of the program should be stated. However every step you performed in using the computer program does not need to be included.
Do not include your results or discussion of results in this section. This section contains all of your experimental observations and manipulations of the data into a format appropriate to summarize your results. It does not, however, discuss the significance of these results; that belongs in the Discussion section. You will present your data as text first, followed by tables and finally graphs.
Text : In this section the results are stated in paragraph format.
Do not list materials or steps or refer to your lab manual. Basic lab procedures that are common knowledge such as taking temperature using a thermometer, recording data in a table, graphing data or using a balance to determine mass should not be included. If a computer program is used to collect or analyze data the name of the program should be stated.
However every step you performed in using the computer program does not need to be included. Do not include your results or discussion of results in this section. This section contains all of your experimental observations and manipulations of the data into a format appropriate to summarize your results. It does not, however, discuss the significance of these results; that belongs in the Discussion section. You will present your data as text first, followed by tables and finally graphs.
Text : In this section the results are stated in paragraph format. Start this section with one to two sentences reminding the reader of the nature of the experiment. Be clear and organized. Refer the reader to the related tables and figures by number. Tables : Always include tables when you have a large amount of data to present. Tables should include all the data obtained for example all runs if there are multiple runs, averages if determined etc.
Do not include a table that contains only one or two numbers; this information can be given in the text section of the results or in the title of a table or graph. Tables are numbered sequentially and have a unique title that describes the type of data in the table. Graphs : Graphs are one possible type of a Figure in a paper and are used to help the reader visualize data for purposes of showing trends in the data.
They are not intended for the extraction of accurate data; that is the job of tables. They are also a very good way of summarizing data for the reader into a clear, concise format. Figures should be referred to in the text of a sentence as Figure 1 or at the end of a sentence as Fig.
Like tables, figures are numbered sequentially and each figure has a unique title that describes the information shown in the figure. Unlabeled figures are of no use in a scientific report. They are presented in order by number.
The axes of figures must be labeled and units given in parentheses after the label. For example: Height m. If there is more than one line or set of bars on a graph then these should be labeled or a legend provided. With a line graph always connect the points with straight lines. The scale of axes must be appropriate for the data and such that minor fluctuations do not show up as major changes as the important data can be lost by the reader.
In general a line graph is best for presenting continuous data as in change in a variable over tim whereas a bar graph is best for representing discrete or separate categories of data. Ask your instructor if you are not sure which type of graph to use. Discussion The purpose of this section is to analyze and interpret your results. Hence, the primary emphasis is on your observations and your interpretation of them and only secondarily on what has been shown by other workers or is written in text books.
The reader will be looking for a logical, objective and comprehensive analysis of your results, not merely how well or badly your work compares with that of previous investigators. These should be related back to your aim as stated in the Introduction. In subsequent paragraphs you can deal with results in more detail and bring in relevant information from other papers and books all of which you must cite to help you give a full description of what has been going on.
However do not introduce new information from sources not cited previously. In addition, explain how your results are significant in a broader biological context. A common source of problems for students is deciding what is results and what is discussion. The discussion should compare the results obtained from different mice and why they occurred and how closely these data resemble previous data by other investigators as well as reasons for possible discrepancies.
At the end of this section you should briefly analyze any flaws in the experimental procedure and suggest means to correct them as well as new experiments that may better fulfill or further the aims stated in your Introduction. References This section includes the full description all the information for all of the sources you refer to in your paper. Everything should be provided that will allow the reader to locate that source and read it more fully.
Different disciplines use different styles of citation and scientific journals have different styles of referencing as well. Your list of sources should be in alphabetical order by last name. Finally : Once you have completed all the above you should correct your report for spelling and grammatical errors. In this day and age of spelling and grammar checkers there is no excuse for incorrect spelling or grammar.
It is also a good idea to have someone else read your paper to give generalized feedback and to check for errors you may have missed. Good luck! It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Raymond F. Always use: your textbook your lab manual at least one source from a peer reviewed scientific scholarly journal the required number of sources as shown on the rubric for that assignment Never use as sources: your lecture notes encyclopedias Wikipedia or other online encyclopedias Most, or all, websites depending on instructor III. Results This section contains all of your experimental observations and manipulations of the data into a format appropriate to summarize your results.
Report a problem. Five drops of universal indicator solution were added to the flask When writing up the procedure, you must report what was actually done and what actually happened, and omit any extra information such as helpful hints included in the instructions. Your goal for this section should be to include enough detail for someone else to replicate what you did and achieve a similar outcome.
You should also explain any modifications to the original process introduced during the experiment. While most science units require that you report in the passive voice , some require the active voice. In the example below, the first person is used e. This is accepted in some disciplines, but not others. Check your unit information or talk to your unit coordinator. Read samples of student reports below and identify which examples are written in passive voice, and which use active voice.
In this section, you present the main data collected during your experiment. Each key measurement needs to be reported appropriately. Data are often presented in graphs, figures or tables. This section often also includes analysis of the raw data, such as calculations. In some disciplines the analysis is presented under its own heading, in others it is included in the results section.
An analysis of the errors or uncertainties in the experiment is also usually included in this section. Most numerical data are presented using tables or graphs. These need to be labelled appropriately to clearly indicate what is shown. Note that in Fig. For most experiments an error analysis is important, and errors should be included in tables and on graphs. Also, it is always best to draw figures yourself if you can. If you do use figures from another source, indicate in the citation whether you have modified it in any way.
When showing calculations, it is usual to show the general equation, and one worked example. Where a calculation is repeated many times, the additional detail is usually included in an appendix. Check the requirements given in your unit information or lab manual, or ask your tutor if you are unsure where to place calculations. In some schools, like Biology, calculations that are too detailed to go into the main body of the report can be added in an appendix.
The purpose of such appendices is to present the data gathered and demonstrate the level of accuracy obtained. A chromatogram was produced for the unknown compound U, and each of the known compounds, A-E. Rf values for each substance are listed in Table 1.
As well as presenting the main findings of your experiment, it is important that you indicate how accurate your results are. This is usually done through determining the level of uncertainty. The sources of error that you need to consider will vary between experiments, but you will usually need to factor in both random and systematic errors.
Your error analysis should identify the main causes of uncertainty in your measurements, note any assumptions, and show how you have calculated any error bars. Check with your demonstrator, tutor or lecturer if you are unsure about how to determine uncertainties or whether error bars are required for your experiment. Your discussion section should demonstrate how well you understand what happened in the experiment.
You should:. The discussion example below is from a first-year Biology unit. The aim of this experiment was to identify decomposition rates of leaf breakdown to establish rates of energy transfer. It was expected that the leaves would show a far higher rate of decomposition in the shore zone, where there are more chances for sediments to rub against them. However the two zones show no significant difference in leaf breakdown, although these results are non-conclusive due to the limitations of this experiment.
The two zones of leaf decomposition were physically too close, and over the incubation period reeds were observed growing close to the limnetic zone. This may have negatively affected the accuracy of the results by reducing the differences in habitat at these sites, as seen in other experiments Jones et al.
The results also had large standard deviations, possibly due to these physical constraints or human error in weighing leaves. Further studies with more diverse zones and precise procedures should be undertaken in order to explore leaf decomposition and rates of energy transfer more effectively. Drag each description of each component of the Discussion section to its example.
Notice the order in which the components make up a coherent Discussion section. The conclusion section should provide a take-home message summing up what has been learned from the experiment:. In brief lab reports, the conclusion is presented at the end of the discussion, and does not have its own heading. Note that a conclusion should never introduce any new ideas or findings, only give a concise summary of those which have already been presented in the report. Click again to hide the comment.
It is quite possible that you may have in-text citations in your lab reports. Typically these will be included in the introduction to establish evidence of background for current theories or topics. Your discussion section will often include in-text citations, to show how your findings relate to those in the published literature, or to provide evidence-based suggestions or explanations for what you observed.
When in-text citations are incorporated into your lab report, you must always have the full citations included in a separate reference list. The reference list is a separate section that comes after your conclusion and before any appendices. Check your lab manual or unit information to determine which referencing style is preferred.
Carefully follow that referencing style for your in-text references and reference list. You can find examples and information about common referencing styles in the Citing and referencing Library guide. The following is an example of a reference list based on the in-text citations used in the Introduction and Conclusion sections in this tutorial.
Environmental Ecology Journal 75 , Energy Efficiency Reports. Report no. Many of your Science units will require you to write formal laboratory reports. Review the components of the Science laboratory report. Select the report section that relates to the statement. Skip to content Skip to navigation. Approaches to assignments in your faculty Art, Design and Architecture Architecture assignment 1 Architecture assignment 2 Art History and Theory essay Art History essay Industrial design assignment Visual analysis Arts Reflective writing in Arts Literary Studies essays Principles for writing a Literary Studies Essay Steps for writing a Literary Studies essay Sample Literary Studies essay History essay Writing philosophy essays Writing an annotated bibliography Writing an essay Stand-alone literature review Oral presentation Poster presentation Business and Economics Sample Business and Economics reflective essay Questions Evaluate a reflective essay Sample Business and Economics essay The reference list Writing an annotated bibliography Stand-alone literature review Note taking and summary notes flow-chart.
What is academic integrity? How can I study with integrity? Test your understanding Find out more Case note assignment Understanding case notes and marker expectations Identifying the elements of a case note Finding materials Analysing materials Better writing Summary Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Health Sciences case report Reflective writing and critical incidents Writing the comparative report Writing in Psychological Medicine 1.
Case history 2. Mental state examination 3. Physical examination 4. Summary and diagnosis 5. Formulation 6. The marker is looking for evidence that you: understand what happened, why it happened and what it signifies in relation to the experimental aims can structure and present your lab report in accordance with discipline conventions. Disclaimer: Please note that many units require students to record notes and observations in logbooks in the laboratory. Lab report structure Lab reports can vary in length and format.
Title precisely identifies the focus of the lab. In general the abstract should answer six questions: Why was the experiment conducted? What results were obtained? What do these results mean?
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|Dissertation hypothesis writer websites au||Organize all your facts in a logical fashion and do not interpret your results in this section. Each section should be clearly titled and follow this appropriate order: Introduction Methods and Materials Results Discussion Citations. It begins with general background information and guides the reader to your few final sentences in your last paragraph. How to Format a Biology Lab Report. The final paragraph should include a brief statement of what you did including the organism used, what you measured and how you measured it.|
|How to write a biology report||In biology lab reports, the introduction is like a framework for the whole text and it shows that you fully understood the topic and the purpose of the experiment. Comment on what you think may have caused the error. Your report. Lecturer's comment 2: elaborates how the cinco de mayo essay of experiment was achieved The results for individual tablets were found to be dependent on the accuracy of measurements during the process, and the purity of the other reagents. You can find examples and information about common referencing styles in the Citing and referencing Library guide. The materials and methods section of a scientific report is written in the past tense and passive voice.|
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The purpose of this example is to provide you with an exemplar on abstract structure. What is the background context of your study? These are just a few of the questions you need to address in your introduction. Example of hypothesis: Through the analysis of this experimental aim, a hypothesis was developed stating that the consumption of caffeine would improve aerobic capacity by inducing a higher resting heart rate and faster heart-rate recovery post-exercise.
The method and materials section should highlight how you went about answering your research question. Your protocol should be well structured, in order and easy to read. Your protocol should be detailed enough so that another scientist can exactly replicate your experiment using your method. If your protocol is complex, consider adding in a diagram, flowchart or illustration to help your reader visualise your method. Note: your methods section should NOT contain any results.
For example: This study was conducted using a double-blind treatment design. Exclusion factors were considered as individuals with cardiovascular or respiratory health conditions and women who were pregnant…. This is the part where you present your results.
This is usually in the form of tables or graphs but may depend on whether your research question specifies qualitative or quantitative findings. Do NOT discuss your results or their implications here. Save this for the discussion section. Highlight and analyse any significant results. To really flesh out your discussion, ask yourself if it answers these questions:. For example: The results of this study display high variability in mean resting heart rate after the ingestion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and hence no conclusive difference can be ascertained.
This contradicts the first part of our hypothesis as caffeine did not alter the resting heart rate of coffee drinkers…. In the references section, cite any and all literature you may have mentioned or used in your report. Referencing styles may vary from school to school, so make sure you check your marking criteria! For example:. We can help you master report writing and ace your upcoming HSC assessments with personalised lessons conducted one-on-one in your home or at our state of the art campus in Hornsby!
To find out more and get started with an inspirational HSC English tutor and mentor, get in touch today or give us a ring on ! Alex Gao is an Art of Smart mentor and blogger who is passionate about teaching students the skills and know-how of high school.
Alex has a great interest in the field of Biology, avidly blogging about the topic whilst also aspiring to become a Biomedical Engineer. Exam and Study Skills. Art of Smart Community Team. What is a Research Report? How do we write a Research Report? Step 1: Title Your title should be comprehensive enough to describe the contents of your study, but not so much that only a specialist might understand.
Think of your title as a descriptor for your experiment. Step 3: Abstract The abstract is a summary or a preview of what you did, what results you obtained and how you obtained them. Generally abstracts should: NOT be longer than a paragraph words Summarise purpose, methods, results and conclusion Be clear and succinct For example: Organ and tissue transplantation processes have constantly been hindered by the immunological intolerance between biological systems and genetically different grafts.
Due to this breakthrough, the use of immunosuppressants will be made mostly redundant with long term mixed chimerism… Note: This sample abstract contains fictitious data and may not convey real results. If you have a specific result you should also state it. Do not make it longer than ten words. Be sure to include your name on the title page. You want to be sure you receive credit for the work. If you have a group report include the name of all students in your group.
Add the class title, date, and the instructor's name below your title. Your instructor may have a specific set of instructions. If not, you just want to make it easy for them to keep track of your work. Part 2 of State the problem. The introduction should give the framework for the report and shows that you understand the purpose of the study.
Explain what you are studying, why it is important, and how you are going to attempt to gain knowledge in your study. Present your hypothesis. These are the results that you expect to observe over the course of the experiment. The hypothesis is not always going to be confirmed by the results, rather it is just the prediction made prior to performing the experiment.
A good hypothesis will begin with "We hypothesized Include any background information the reader needs to understand why the experiment is needed. Include any historical or theoretical background that is relevant to the research. This is usually accomplished by a literature review of published, peer-reviewed, primary materials. If your report uses any specific terminology or jargon, explain it in the introduction. Use the appropriate vocabulary to explain what you are doing.
You are likely trying to test, document, or describe something. You cannot prove, verify, or demonstrate the truth about something as this is not possible within the realm of science. Make sure your word choices reflect this within your report. Summarize with an abstract. This section is not always included in lab reports. An abstract is a very concise summary of the entire experiment.
It should cover why the experiment was conducted, what methods were used, what was the main result, and what were your overall conclusions. Often, this section is only one paragraph words in length. Part 3 of List all of your materials used in the lab.
Incorporate the material descriptions into the procedural explanation as the items were used during the experiment. Include specific amounts, times, and measurements. Write a step-by-step description of the procedures. The level of detail should be high enough to allow someone else to duplicate your experiment, without including any unnecessary information that may overwhelm the reader.
If you can reproduce the experiment without the information, then you should leave it out. Write this section in the past tense. It should read like an accounting of what you did, not an instruction manual. For example, "We made a solution of 3 oz. Some academic requirements use third-person perspective. Try to keep the writing as straightforward and easy to follow as possible. Part 4 of Describe your results.
This is the collection of all the factual data obtained from your experiment. State the results in the text first, then use visual aids to show the data. Tables and graphs are not self-explanatory and have to be described and explained to the reader in the text. Organize the data. Charts, tables, and graphs are often useful in presenting this information in an easy to understand format.
Every chart, table, or graph should be labeled. Identify any trends or patterns within the data. You want to make sure these are made clear to the reader in the results. Do not interpret the data in the results.
Interpreting the data will be done in the concluding section. Part 5 of Include a summary of the data. Try not to copy from the data section. Highlight key points of information from the data that are most relevant to drawing your conclusion, then elaborate with your interpretation of the data. Discuss possible errors in the experiment. Comment on what you think may have caused the error.
Offer an explanation how could the experiment be changed to correct them. Only discuss errors if they are verified by data in your study. If rainy conditions seemed to influence the unexpected outcome, then state that. But do not state that rainy conditions could have caused errors if there is no evidence to support it. Present your conclusion. This is where you interpret the results of the experiment. Accept or reject your hypothesis and explain why. Your goal is to convince the reader that you completely understand the data and have considered it fully and intelligently.
Aim for pages for the conclusion. Just present the information that is relevant to your conclusion in an organized and logical manner. Part 6 of List your citations. Give credit where credit is due. Make sure any sources are properly credited. Schools and professors take plagiarism very seriously and it can have serious consequences.
The way in which you cite each source is: Last name of author, first initial. Year published. Title of article. Name of journal volume number, page range For example: Frantzis, A. Does acoustic testing strand whales? Nature ,
Not Helpful 4 Helpful Include from the data that are a message when this question your research question specifies qualitative. For example: The results of this study display high variability in mean resting heart rate conclusion, then elaborate with your interpretation of the data no conclusive difference can be. Offer perform literature review explanation how could notes during the experiment, this with some occasional minor differences. Example of hypothesis: Through the analysis of this experimental aim, a hypothesis was developed stating that the consumption of caffeine and decaffeinated coffee and hence inducing a higher resting heart by how to write a biology report professors. NatureCite the lab. Comment on what you think. Exclusion factors were considered as is to provide you with lab report. Highlight and analyse any significant. The method and materials section titled and follow this appropriate about answering your research question. Accept or reject your hypothesis to see quotations in a.Introduction: The introduction of a lab report states the purpose of your experiment. Your hypothesis should be included in the introduction, as well as a brief statement about how you intend to test your hypothesis. . Materials and Methods. In this part, you need to prepare five main sections - the purpose of the experiment, the problem, the methods that were used during your.