Most libraries have internet connections on at least a few computers, although sometimes you need to sign up for them in advance. Even if there doesn't seem to be much of a crowd around, be sure to sign up on the sheet so that you don't have someone come along and try to take your spot. Internet research can be very rewarding, but it also has its drawbacks. Many libraries have set their computers on a particular search engine, or a service that will conduct the research for you.
If you don't find what you are looking for by using one search engine, switch to another Google, Yahoo, etc Internet research can be time consuming. You will need to search much the way you would on the library database computers--simply type in key words or authors or titles, and see what the computer comes up with. Then you will have to read through the list of choices that you are given and see if any of them match what you think you are looking for.
Part of your internet research will include evaluating the resources that you find. Personal web pages are NOT a good source to go by--they often have incorrect information on them and can be very misleading. Be sure that your internet information is from a recognized source such as the government, an agency that you are sure is a credible source the Greenpeace web page, for example, or the web page for the National Institute of Health , or a credible news source CBS, NBC, and ABC all have web pages.
Check out the Content and Evaluation and Sources and Data sections. Click here for that source. Taking notes is an important part of doing research. Be sure when you take notes that you write down the source that they are from! One way of keeping track is to make yourself a "master list"--a number list of all of the sources that you have.
Then, as you are writing down notes, you can just write down the number of that source. A good place to write notes down is on note cards. This way you can take the note cards and organize them later according to the way you want to organize your paper. While taking notes, also be sure to write down the page number of the information. You will need this later on when you are writing your paper.
Any time that you use information that is not what is considered "common knowledge" rule of thumb--knowledge included in three or more sources , you must acknowledge your source. For example, when you paraphrase or quote, you need to indicate to your reader that you got the information from somewhere else.
This scholarly practice allows your reader to follow up that source to get more information. You must create what is called a citation in order to acknowledge someone else's ideas. You use parentheses in your text, and inside the parentheses you put the author's name and the page number there are several different ways of doing this. You should look at your course guide carefully to determine which format you should be using. Check out more specific information on how to document sources.
Using sources to support your ideas is one characteristic of the research paper that sets it apart from personal and creative writing. Sources come in many forms such as magazine and journal articles, books, newspapers, videos, films, computer discussion groups, surveys, or interviews. The trick is to find and then match appropriate, valid sources to your own ideas. But where do you go to obtain these sources? For college research papers, you will need to use sources available in academic libraries college or university libraries as opposed to public libraries.
Here you will find journals and other texts that go into more depth in a discipline and are, therefore, more appropriate for college research than those sources written for the general public. Some, though not all, of these sources are now in electronic format, and may be accessible outside of the library using a computer.
Primary sources are original, first-hand documents such as creative works, research studies, diaries, and letters, or interviews you conduct. Secondary sources are comments about primary sources such as analyses of creative work or original research, or historical interpretations of diaries and letters.
You can use a combination of primary and secondary sources to answer your research question, depending on the question and the type of sources it requires. If you're writing a paper on the reasons for a certain personality disorder, you may read an account written by a person with that personality disorder, a case study by a psychiatrist, and a textbook that summarizes a number of case studies.
The first-hand account and the psychiatrist's case study are primary sources, written by people who have directly experienced or observed the situation themselves. The textbook is a secondary source, one step removed from the original experience or observation. For example, if you asked what the sea symbolized in Hemingway's story "The Old Man and the Sea," you'd need to consult the story as a primary source and critics' interpretations of the story as a secondary source.
Again, find the computer labeled for searching the library's collection of books and other materials or the card catalog. Look up sources by author, title, or subject. Most of the searches that you do for a research paper will be subject searches, unless you already know enough about the field to know some standard sources by author or title. When using an on-line catalog or a card catalog, make sure to jot down the source's name, title, place of publication, publication date, and any other relevant bibliographic information that you will need later on if you choose to use the source in your research paper.
Also remember to record the call number, which is the number you use to find the item in the library. Magazines are written for the general public, so they contain articles that do not present a subject in depth.
Journals are written by and for professionals in various fields and will provide you with in-depth, specific information. Your professors will expect you to use some journals; in fact, the more advanced your courses are, the more you should be using journal articles in your research as opposed to magazine articles.
How do you find articles to answer your research question? It's inefficient to go through volumes of magazines and journals, even if you could think of appropriate ones. Most magazine and journal articles are referenced in either an index or an abstract. An index lists magazine or journal articles by subject. Find the correct subject heading or keyword to search for articles.
Write down all the information for each article. Check the index's abbreviation key if you can't understand the abbreviations in the entry. Make sure to write down all of the entry's information so you can find the article IF your library carries the magazine or journal.
If not, you can use the information to request the article through interlibrary loan. Specific indices the "correct" plural of index exist for journals in just about every field of study Business Index, Social Science Index, General Science Index, Education Index, and many more , while there's only one major index to general interest magazines The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. Many libraries have many of these indices on their on-line systems; check with the reference librarian if you have a question about indices available on-line.
An abstract is like an index with a brief description of the article's content added. You'll soon see that it's great to be researching in a field that has an abstract, since this short explanation can help you make an early decision about the relevance of the article to your research question or working thesis.
A bound, printed abstract takes two steps to use. The first step is the same--find the appropriate subject heading in the index portion and write down all of the information in the entry. Note that the entry will also include a number or some kind of an identifying code. Then use the number or code in the "abstracts" portion to find a description of the type of information that's in the article.
Again, if an article seems appropriate, write down all of the entry information so you can find the article in your library or through interlibrary loan and so you'll have the information for your works cited or references list at the end of your paper. The most commonly used index to newspaper articles is the New York Times Index, organized alphabetically by subject.
Find the appropriate subject heading and jot down the information so you can find the article, which is usually on microfilm, unless you're dealing with a very recent issue of the Times. Your local newspaper also may publish an index, which may be useful if you are researching local history or politics.
Encyclopedias provide background information about a subject. Note that you should confine your use of encyclopedias to background information only, since their information is too general to function as an appropriate source for a college paper. Specialized encyclopedias and dictionaries provide background in specific fields e.
Facts on File and Statistical Abstracts provide brief bits of statistical information that can aid your research. For example, if you're doing on a paper on airline safety since deregulation, it's a safe bet that you can find statistics on airline safety problems in one of these reference books. Other reference books abound e.
Take time, at some point, to browse your library's shelves in the reference section to see how many different types of reference books exist and to consider how you may use them. It will be time well-spent. Remember to write down all of the information that you need from these sources as they are almost always not allowed to be used outside of the library.
The Library of Congress provides an indexing system; most academic libraries index their books using Library of Congress subject headings. The Library of Congress publishes a Subject Heading Index listing all of the subject headings that they use.
Why bother knowing this information? The Subject Heading Index is a good tool for you as a researcher. If you're not getting exactly the right books you need through your on-line subject search, check this index to find the appropriate subject heading to use. If you are finding too much information, check this index to see at a glance all of the various headings and sub-headings for the subject.
You can get an idea of how to narrow down and focus your subject simply by scanning these various headings and sub-headings. Just note that these subject headings relate to books only. Magazine and journal indexes and abstracts will use their own subject headings but the Library of Congress headings can at least give you an idea of the types of headings to use. The important thing to remember here is that, by the time a book is printed, the information is at least a couple of years old.
So if you're doing research that requires very recent information, a newspaper, magazine, or journal is your best bet. If the age of the information is not an issue and it's not, in many cases , then a book's fuller treatment of a subject is a good choice. It's also useful to move from virtual cyberspace into actual, physical space and "real time" when you search for books. That means that you should get yourself into the library.
Sometimes a look through the stacks the shelves on which the books are located will turn up additional information that's relevant to your research question or working thesis. The Internet provides access to a lot of information. The Internet provides access to many on-line catalogs so you can review the types of books available in the field and carried by that particular library.
The Internet also provides access to a few full-text electronic journals which means that you can read and print the article right from the screen. Government information e. The Internet can link you up with individuals who might have expertise on the topic you are researching. You can find these people by joining electronic discussion groups newsgroups or maillists.
These forums are usually categorized by topic e. By posting a question to the group or maillist, you can obtain useful information from knowledgeable people willing to share their expertise. The one big problem with the Internet is that you sometimes need to sift. You also have to be critical of what you find, since anyone can post and even change anything that's out there in cyberspace, and you won't necessarily know if someone answering your query is really an expert in the field.
But if you persevere, and even if you just play around with it, the Internet can offer some gems of information in a quick, easy way. Don't underestimate the power of interviewing knowledgeable people as part of your research. For example, if you're researching a topic in local history, consult the town historian or a local resident who experienced what you're researching. People who have "been there" and "done that" can add a real richness to your research.
For example, who better than a former Olympic athlete to provide information about the emotional effects of athletic competition? You can consult knowledgeable people in print as well. If you find one or two names that keep popping up in your research if others consistently refer to these names and list works by these people in their bibliographies , then you should consult sources by these people, since it's likely that they are considered experts in the field which you are researching.
If your library doesn't carry the book or journal article that you need, you probably can get that source through interlibrary loan. Interlibrary loan is available to all SUNY Empire faculty, staff, and students, and it supplies electronically delivered book chapters and journal articles but no physical media. One big tip for using interlibrary loan: you will need full and specific information to order the material.
So get in the habit of writing all of the information down as you compile your list of sources. For books, write down the author, title, publisher, place, and date of publication. A young dog fought for my attention, and successfully commandeered a little of it. Time spent around the kitchen table as Claire prepared a salad helped to braid a rope bridge over the three-year gap that we could cross easily.
We spoke with ease of things that could not be spoken of before: of our children, of the delicate balance of our own paths with those reliant on us, of our creative edges and the place we found for them. As we ate we looked out over the River Severn, motorway bridges spanning its width, wind turbines around Avonmouth sentinels to a distant view.
She splits her time between organizing the courses, teaching, facilitating CWTP sessions and writing. It had struck me that as I talk about making through the experiences of others and myself, I am giving expression to this through the act of writing.
The path unfolds in front of me, and there is no corresponding map for it. I follow a hidden track and find where it leads me. I am not entirely sure of the form that tree or the planks from it will take. But one thing I do know is that they are material for the journey that will unfold around them. This book is a fluid path from an idea, along a stream bed whose variations, detours and eddies are unknown until the water that flows into it finds itself moved.
So, too, is much of the work I do now, inspired as it is by the material, the planks or trees, it moves from them into a notion of what it might become. But that is not exactly what it does become; meanwhile there is a trust that whatever emerges will be the right thing to have emerged, becoming the object that could not be seen but that is right.
Used with the permission of Chelsea Green Publishing. Created by Grove Atlantic and Electric Literature. Via Chelsea Green. By Nick Kary. Nick Kary Nick Kary has spent a lifetime making, teaching, and writing. Over the past 35 years he has developed his skillset as a craftsman and designer of fine furniture from workshops in London, Mexico and Devon, for clients including Terence Conran, Madonna and Elton John.
A part-time lecturer at Plymouth University and Schumacher College, Nick also teaches furniture making from his own workshops at The Brake, the home and creative centre he established with his wife Dolly, outside Totnes, England. Close to the Lithub Daily Thank you for subscribing!
Gwen Adshead. July 22, by Willa C. Like us on Facebook. Read More. Loading Comments
In , nonresidential sources accounted for 61 percent of that amount. The following sections provide more information about:. Source reduction reduces life-cycle material use, energy use and waste generation. EPA gives it the highest priority for addressing solid waste issues. While reuse and recycling are important methods to sustainably manage waste once waste has already been generated, source reduction prevents waste from being generated in the first place. Looking to practice a source reduction measure in your structure's design or construction?
Demolishing existing buildings and disposing of the debris is not a resource efficient practice. Deconstruction is the process of carefully dismantling buildings to salvage components for reuse and recycling. Deconstruction can be applied on a number of levels to salvage usable materials and significantly cut waste. The major benefit of reusing materials is the resource and energy use that one saves avoided by reducing the production of new materials.
Understanding costs and recycling options in your area is key to developing a successful waste management plan. Many building components can be recycled where markets exist. Asphalt, concrete, and rubble are often recycled into aggregate or new asphalt and concrete products.
Wood can be recycled into engineered-wood products like furniture, as well as mulch, compost, and other products. A subdiscipline of historic archaeology is industrial archaeology. Industrial archaeologists study materials that were created or used after the Industrial Revolution of the s and s. The Industrial Revolution was strongest in Western Europe and North America, so most industrial archaeologists study artifacts found there.
One of the most important sites for industrial archaeologists is the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England. The River Severn runs through the gorge , and during the Industrial Revolution, it allowed for the transport of raw material s such as coal , limestone , and iron.
Other Disciplines Ethnoarchaeologist s study how people use and organize objects today. They use this knowledge to understand how people used tools in the past. Archaeologists researching the ancient San culture of southern Africa, for instance, study the way modern San culture functions.
Until the midth century, the San, maintained a somewhat nomadic lifestyle based on hunting and gathering. Although the San culture had evolved significantly, archaeologists studying the tools of the modern San could still study the way ancient San tracked and hunted animals and gathered native plants. Environmental archaeologists help us understand the environmental conditions that influenced people in the past. Sometimes, environmental archaeology is called human paleoecology.
The forest grew as the climate became wetter. Experimental archaeologist s replicate the techniques and processes people used to create or use objects in the past. Often, re-creating an ancient workshop or home helps experimental archaeologists understand the process or method used by ancient people to create features or artifacts. One of the most famous examples of experimental archaeology is the Kon-Tiki , a large raft built by Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl.
In , Heyerdahl sailed the Kon-Tiki from South America to Polynesia to show that ancient mariner s, with the same tools and technology, could have navigate d the vast Pacific Ocean. Forensic archaeologist s sometimes work with geneticist s to support or question DNA evidence. More often, they excavate the remains of victims of murder or genocide in areas of conflict.
The Killing Fields are the sites of mass grave s of thousands of victims of the Khmer Rouge regime of the s. After the fall of the Khmer Rouge, forensic archaeologists studied the remains of the bodies in the Killing Fields, discovering how and when they died.
The forensic archaeologists helped establish that the Khmer Rouge used starvation and overwork , as well as direct killing, to silence opponents of the regime. Archaeologists working in the field of cultural resource management help assess and preserve remains on sites where construction is scheduled to occur. Archaeologists working as cultural resource managers often collaborate with local governments to balance the infrastructure and commercial needs of a community with historic and cultural interests represented by artifacts and features found on construction sites.
Where to Dig? Most archaeology involves digging. Wind s and flood s carry sand , dust and soil , depositing them on top of abandoned features and artifacts. These deposits build up over time, burying the remains. Sometimes catastrophe s, like volcanic eruption s, speed up this burial process. In places where earth has been carved away—like in the Grand Canyon in the U. Cities and communities also tend to be built in layers. Rome, Italy, has been an urban center for thousands of years.
The streets of downtown Rome today are several meters higher than they were during the time of Julius Caesar. Centuries of Romans have built it up— medieval home on top of ancient home, modern home on top of medieval home. Establishing a dig site in an inhabited area can be a very difficult process.
Archaeologists looking for an ancient Roman fortress , for instance, may have to first excavate a Renaissance bakery and medieval hospital. Because most artifacts lie underground, scientists have developed methods to help them figure out where they should dig. Sometimes they choose sites based on old myth s and stories about where people lived or where events occurred.
The ancient city of Troy , written about by Greek poet Homer as early as BCE, was thought to be a work of fiction. Using the Iliad as a guide, German amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovered the ruins of the city near the town of Hisarlik, Turkey, in Sometimes, archaeologists use historical map s to find ancient artifacts.
Before securing a site, an archaeological team surveys the area, looking for signs of remains. These might include artifacts on the ground or unusual mounds in the earth. New technology has greatly increased their ability to survey an area. For example, aerial and satellite imagery can show patterns that might not be visible from the ground. Other technologies give clues about what lies under the surface. These techniques involve radar and sonar. Radar and sonar technologies often use radio wave s, electrical current s, and laser s.
Archaeologists send these signals into the earth. As the signals hit something solid, they bounce back up to the surface. Scientists study the time and paths the signals take to familiarize themselves with the underground landscape. Accidental finds can also lead archaeologists to dig sites. For instance, farmers plowing their fields might come across sherd s of pottery.
A construction crew might discover ruins beneath a building site. Another monumental discovery was made by accident. In , agricultural workers in Xian, China, were digging a well. The complex includes 8, life-sized clay soldiers, horses, chariot s, and artillery , popularly known as the Terra Cotta Warriors. The archaeological research surrounding the Terra Cotta Warriors has provided insight on the organization and leadership style of Qin Shi Huangdi and the development of Chinese culture.
Once a site is chosen, archaeologists must get permission to dig from the landowner. If it is public land, they must obtain the proper permit s from the local, state, or federal government. Before moving a single grain of dirt, archaeologists make maps of the area and take detailed photographs.
Once they begin digging, they will destroy the original landscape, so it is important to record how things looked beforehand. The last step before digging is to divide the site into a grid to keep track of the location of each find. Then archaeologists choose sample squares from the grid to dig.
This allows the archaeological team to form a complete study of the area. They also leave some plots on the grid untouched. Archaeologists like to preserve portions of their dig sites for future scientists to study—scientists who may have better tools and techniques than are available today. For example, during the Great Depression in the s, programs to create jobs led to many archaeological digs around the United States. Some scientists on these digs removed artifacts, such as pottery, but threw away charcoal and animal bones.
These items were considered junk. Today, scientists are able to carbon-date the charcoal and analyze the bones to see what kinds of animals people were domesticating and eating at the time. It is important that archaeologists today keep some parts of each site pristine. Not all archaeology involves digging in the earth. Archaeologists and engineer s work with sophisticated technology to probe the earth below without disturbing the ground.
National Geographic Emerging Explorer Dr. Albert Yu-Min Lin leads an innovative archaeological project centered in Mongolia. The Valley of the Khans project is using digital imaging , aerial photograph y, radar, and digital surveying to locate the tomb of Genghis Khan. Using satellite technology, Lin and his team can access information about the project without disturbing the land or even going to Mongolia. The Big Dig The process of researching and securing a dig site can take years.
Digging is the field work of archaeology. On occasion, archaeologists might need to move earth with bulldozer s and backhoe s. Usually, however, archaeologists use tools such as brushes, hand shovels, and even toothbrushes to scrape away the earth around artifacts. The most common tool that archaeologists use to dig is a flat trowel. A trowel is a hand-held shovel used for smoothing as well as digging.
Archaeologists use trowels to slowly scrape away soil. For very small or delicate remains, archaeologists might also dig with dental pick s, spoons, or very fine blades. Often, they will sift dirt through a fine mesh screen. Tiny remains, such as beads, can often be found this way. Archaeologists take lots of notes and photographs along each step of the process. Sometimes they include audio and video recordings.
Global positioning system GPS units and data from geographic information systems GIS help them map the location of various features with a high level of precision. When archaeologists find remains, they are often broken or damaged after hundreds or even thousands of years underground. Sunlight, rain, soil, animals, bacteria , and other natural processes can cause artifacts to erode , rust , rot , break, and warp.
Sometimes, however, natural processes can help preserve materials. For example, sediments from floods or volcanic eruptions can encase materials and preserve them. In one case, the chill of an Alpine glacier preserved the body of a man for more than 5, years! Forensic archaeologists studying his body were surprised to learn that he was a murder victim—the crime just took place more than 5, years ago.
Uncovered Artifacts As artifacts are uncovered, the archaeological team records every step of the process through photos, drawings, and notes. Once the artifacts have been completely removed, they are cleaned, labeled, and classified.
Particularly fragile or damaged artifacts are sent to a conservator. Conservators have special training in preserving and restoring artifacts so they are not destroyed when exposed to air and light. Textile s, including clothing and bedding, are especially threatened by exposure.
Textile conservators must be familiar with climate , as well as the chemical composition of the cloth and dye s, in order to preserve the artifacts. In , Swedish archaeologists recovered the ship Vasa , which sank in Conservators protected the delicate oak structure of Vasa by spraying it with polyethylene glycol PEG.
The ship was sprayed with PEG for 17 years, and allowed to dry for nine. Today, Vasa sits in its own enormous museum, a hallmark of Swedish heritage. Then the artifacts are sent to a lab for analysis. This is usually the most time-consuming part of archaeology. For every day spent digging, archaeologists spend several weeks processing their finds in the lab. All of this analysis—counting, weighing, categorizing—is necessary. Archaeologists use the information they find and combine it with what other scientists have discovered.
When did people develop tools, and how did they use them? What did they use to make clothing? Did their clothing styles indicate their social ranks and roles? What did they eat? Did they live in large groups or smaller family units? Did they trade with people from other regions?
Were they warlike or peaceful? What were their religious practices? Archaeologists ask all of these questions and more. The scientists write up their findings and publish them in scientific journal s. Other scientists can look at the data and debate the interpretations, helping us get the most accurate story.
Publication also lets the public know what scientists are learning about our history. Sherds and Shards Many archaeologists study broken bits of pottery. These fragments are called potsherds, and sometimes just sherds. Sherds can be anything from bits of a broken water jug to a piece of a clay tablet to the components of China's "Terra Cotta Warriors. Shards include fragments of ancient windows, wine bottles, and jewelry.
Trashy Science Most archaeologists study the past, but some study people who are still alive. For example, Dr. William Rathje uses his archaeological skills to dig through present-day garbage bins and landfills to learn about what Americans consume, discard, and waste. Ancient Cannibals Some ancient humans may have indulged in cannibalism on a regular basis.
Archaeologists discovered ,year-old remains from an early human species, Homo antecessor , in a Spanish cave. Among the remains were human bones with marks on them that appear to come from stone tools used to prepare meals. What is the difference? BC stands for Before Christ, and it is used to date events that happened before the birth of Jesus, whom Christians consider the son of God. In the late 20th century, scientists realized they were basing the entire history of the world around the birth of one religious figure.
The dates are still the same, only the letters have changed. Also called radiocarbon dating. Also called Llano. Also called a CAT scanner. Also called the Parthenon Marbles. Also called the Hebrew Scriptures. A hypothesis is tested to determine if it is accurate.
Nicknamed "Otzi. Navy during the Civil War. RAdio Detection And Ranging method of determining the presence and location of an object using radio waves. Also called carbon-dating. The decree is carved in three languages: Greek, demotic, and hieroglyphic. The current sea level rise is 1. Also called Troia and Ilion. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.
The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Caryl-Sue, National Geographic Society. Dunn, Margery G. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher.
They will best know the preferred format. When you reach out to them, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service.
Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives. Egypt was a vast kingdom of the ancient world. It was unified around B. Today Egyptologists, archaeologists who focus on this ancient civilization, have learned a great deal about the rulers, artifacts, and customs of ancient Egypt. Use these resources to teach your students about the ancient Egyptians. Others say that Aeneas and some of his followers escaped the fall of Troy and established the town.
Regardless of which of the many myths one prefers, no one can doubt the impact of ancient Rome on western civilization. A people known for their military, political, and social institutions, the ancient Romans conquered vast amounts of land in Europe and northern Africa, built roads and aqueducts, and spread Latin, their language, far and wide. Use these classroom resources to teach middle schoolers about the empire of ancient Rome.
For thousands of years, this area was populated by groups such as the Olmec, Zapotec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec peoples. Cultural traits that define the region include the domestication of maize, beans, avocado, and vanilla, and a common architectural style.
Learn more about the rich cultures and lives of these early civilizations. Ancient China is responsible for a rich culture, still evident in modern China. From small farming communities rose dynasties such as the Zhou B. E , Qin B. E , and Ming C. Each had its own contribution to the region. During the Zhou Dynasty, for example, writing was standardized, iron working refined, and famous thinkers like Confucius and Sun-Tzu lived and shared their philosophies.
Learn more about the history and rich culture of Ancient China with this curated resource collection. Humans relied on hunting and gathering practices to survive for thousands of years before the development of agriculture. This more reliable food supply meant humans could stay in one place and gave rise to settled communities and cities.
These urban civilizations had larger populations, unique architecture and art, systems of government, different social and economic classes, and a division of labor. Learn more about the rise of cities with these resources. Mesopotamia is thought to be one of the places where early civilization developed. It is a historic region of West Asia within the Tigris-Euphrates river system.
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