This study aims to determine how environmental organizations can target fundraising campaigns to increase donations. Building on existing work on targeted fundraising, it asks: To what extent does a potential donor's social distance from climate change victims in fundraising campaigns affect their intention to make a donation?
In this context, social distance is defined as the extent to which people feel they are in the same social group in-group or another social group out-group in relation to climate change victims. Based on a review of the literature on donation intention and theories of social distance, an online survey was distributed to potential donors based across the UK.
Respondents were randomly divided into two conditions large and small social distance and asked to respond to one of two sets of fundraising material. Analysis of the responses demonstrated that large social distance was associated with stronger donation intentions than small social distance.
The results indicate that social distance does have an impact on donation intention. On this basis, it is recommended that environmental organizations use social distance as a key factor in designing and targeting their campaigns. Further research is needed to identify other factors that could strengthen the effectiveness of these campaigns. When to write an abstract You will almost always have to include an abstract when writing a thesis, dissertation , research paper , or submitting an article to an academic journal.
In all cases, the abstract is the very last thing you write. It should be a completely independent, self-contained text, not an excerpt copied from your paper or dissertation. The easiest approach to writing an abstract is to imitate the structure of the larger work — think of it as a miniature version of your dissertation or research paper. In most cases, this means the abstract should contain four key elements.
Learn more. Start by clearly defining the purpose of your research. What question did you aim to answer? Use verbs like investigate , test , analyse or evaluate to describe exactly what you set out to do. This part of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense , but should never refer to the future, as the research is already complete. Next, indicate the methods that you used to answer your question.
This part should generally be a straightforward description of what you did in one or two sentences. It is usually written in the past simple tense as it refers to completed actions. Give an overview of the main results of the research. This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense. Depending on how long and complex your research is, you might not be able to include all results here.
Try to highlight only the most important findings that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions. Finally, state the main conclusion of your research: what is your answer to the research question? The reader should finish with a clear understanding of the central point that your research has proved or argued. Conclusions are usually written in the present simple tense. If there are important limitations to your research for example, related to your sample size or methods , you should mention them briefly in the abstract.
This allows the reader to accurately assess the credibility of your research. If your aim was to solve a practical problem, the conclusions might include recommendations for implementation. If relevant, you can briefly make suggestions for further research.
These strategies can help you get started. Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements. If your research has a different structure for example, a humanities dissertation that builds an argument through thematic chapters , you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining. For each chapter or section, list keywords and draft 1—2 sentences that summarise the central point or argument. Next, revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.
The abstract should tell a condensed version of the whole story, and it should only include information that can be found in the main text. Reread your abstract to make sure it gives a clear summary of your overall argument. You probably already read lots of journal article abstracts while conducting your literature review —try using them as a framework for structure and style. You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases.
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Confirm that you would also like to sign up for free personalized email coaching for this stage. Recommended Courses. Q: How to write the abstract for a social sciences or humanities paper? Answer Follow this Question.
Answer: The abstract for a humanities or social sciences paper is generally unstructured, that is, it is not divided into specific sections, such as Introduction, Methods, Results, etc. Although it is written as a single paragraph, the abstract should summarize information about all sections of your study, including your thesis, goals, approach, main findings, and conclusions.
Answered by Editage Insights on 30 Mar, Resources for authors and journals. Upvote this Answer 7 Comment. Answer this question. Ask a new question. This content belongs to the Manuscript Writing Stage Translate your research into a publication-worthy manuscript by understanding the nuances of academic writing. No Yes. Show comments. Follow this Question. Recent Searches Review paper Responding to reviewer comments Predatory publishers Scope and delimitations Open access Plagiarism in research Journal selection tips Editor assigned Types of articles "Reject and Resubmit" status Decision in process Conflict of interest.
Career development. Become a great peer reviewer! Basic and…. You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases. A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point. Avoid unnecessary filler words, and avoid obscure jargon — the abstract should be understandable to readers who are not familiar with your topic. If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are often specific formatting requirements for the abstract —make sure to check the guidelines and format your work correctly.
Always stick to the word limit. If you have not been given any guidelines on the length of the abstract, write no more than one double-spaced page. The abstract appears after the title page and acknowledgements and before the table of contents.
I have clearly stated my research problem and objectives. I have briefly described my methodology. I have summarized the most important results. I have stated my main conclusions. You've written a great abstract! Use the other checklists to continue improving your thesis or dissertation. An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text such as a journal article or dissertation.
It serves two main purposes:. Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. An abstract for a thesis or dissertation is usually around — words. The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis or paper. Avoid citing sources in your abstract. There are two reasons for this:. There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist.
The abstract appears on its own page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Dissertation How to write an abstract.
UK environmental organizations currently face a significant funding gap. Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services Trustpilot. The word count is within the required length, or a maximum of one page. I have mentioned any important limitations and recommendations. The abstract can be understood by someone without prior knowledge of the topic.
Well done! See all other checklists Return to checklist. What is the purpose of an abstract? It serves two main purposes: To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
How long is a dissertation abstract? When should I write the abstract? Can you cite sources in an abstract? There are two reasons for this: The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others. The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.
Where does the abstract go in a thesis or dissertation? Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.
Other students also liked. How to write a dissertation introduction The introduction leads the reader into your dissertation. It should describe the topic, focus, importance, and objectives of your research. Shorten your abstract or summary You can shorten your abstract by not using excessively long sentences. Avoiding the following five things is an easy way to make your text more concri….
How to write a literature review A literature review is a survey of scholarly knowledge on a topic. It is used to identify trends, debates, and gaps in the research.
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